Infection And Response Q&a
Infection and Response Questions and Answers
Date : 05/09/2023
INFECTION AND RESPONSE 11. Explain how diseases caused by viruses, bacteria, protists and fungi are spread in animals and plants2. Explain how the spread of diseases can be reduced or prevented3. Define pathogen4. Name four types of pathogen5. How fast do bacteria and viruses reproduce inside the body?6. How do bacteria make you feel unwell?7. How do viruses make you feel unwell?8. Name the type of pathogen which causes measles9. Describe the symptoms of measles 10.Describe how people can protect themselves against measles 11.Describe how measles is spread12.Name the type of pathogen which causes HIV13.Describe the symptoms of HIV 14.Name the type of drug which controls HIV 15.What does HIV attack?16.When can AIDs occur?17.Describe how HIV is spread18. Name the type of pathogen which causes Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV)19. Describe the symptoms of TMV 20. Give an example of a species of plant which can be affected by TMV21. Describe how TMV affects a plant ANSWERS 1. Direct contact, water, air2. Being hygienic, destroying vectors, insolating infected individuals, vaccination3. A microorganism that causes infectious disease4. Bacteria, virus, fungi, protist5. Rapidly6. Produce toxins that damage tissues and make us feel ill7. Viruses live and reproduce inside cells causing damage8. Virus9. Fever and a red skin rash10.Vaccinating young children11.Spread by inhaling droplets containing the virus from sneezes and coughs12. Virus13. Flu-like illness14. Antiretroviral15. The body’s immune cells16.When the body’s immune system can no longer deal with other infections or cancers17. Sexual contact or exchange of bodily fluids such as blood when drug users share needles18. Virus19. A distinct mosaic discolouration pattern on the leaves20. Tomatoes21. Affects growth as photosynthesis cannot occur as efficiently INFECTION AND RESPONSE 2 1. Name the type of pathogen which causes Salmonella2. Describe the symptoms of Salmonella 3. Describe how Salmonella is spread4. Describe how the spread of Salmonella is reduced5. Describe what causes the symptoms of Salmonella6. Name the type of pathogen which causes Gonorrhoea7. Describe the symptoms of Gonorrhoea8. Describe how Gonorrhoea is spread9. Describe how the spread of Gonorrhoea is reduced10. Why is the antibiotic penicillin no longer used to treat Gonorrhoea?11.Name the type of pathogen which causes Rose Black Spot12.Describe the symptoms of Rose Black Spot13.Explain how Rose Black Spot affects the growth of a plant14.Describe how Rose Black Spot is spread15.Describe how Rose Black Spot can be treated16.Name the pathogen which causes Malaria17.Name the vector responsible for spreading Malaria18.Describe the symptoms of Malaria19.Describe how the spread of Malaria is controlled
2. Fever, abdominal cramps, diarrhoea, vomiting
3. Bacteria ingested in food or on food prepared in unhygienic conditions
4. In the UK, poultry are vaccinated against salmonella to control the spread of the disease
5. Bacteria secrete toxins
7. A thick yellow or green discharge from the penis or vagina and pain when urinating
8. Sexual contact
9. Can be controlled with antibiotics or barrier methods of contraception such as a condom.
10. Many resistant bacterial strains were found
12. Purple or black spots develop on leaves. Leaves often turn yellow and drop off.
13. Photosynthesis is reduced. Growth is reduced.
14. Fungal spores spread by wind or water.
15. Treat by removing infected leaves and burning them. Spray with fungicide.
18. Recurrent fever
19.Prevent mosquitoes breeding and use mosquito nets to avoid being bitten
INFECTION AND RESPONSE 3
1. Describe how the skin protects the human body against pathogens
2. Describe how the nose protects the human body against pathogens
3. Describe how the trachea and bronchi protects the human body against pathogens
4. Describe how the stomach protects the human body against pathogens
5. Give three ways white blood cells defend against pathogens
6. Explain how vaccination will prevent illness in an individual
7. Explain how the spread of pathogens can be reduced by immunising a large proportion of the population
8. Describe what a vaccination is
9. Give an example of an antibiotic
10.Explain how antibiotics work
11.What has the use of antibiotics helped to reduce?
12.Give one concern of the use of antibiotics.
13.Can antibiotics kill viruses?
14.Describe the role of painkillers.
15.Why is it difficult to develop drugs that kill viruses?
1. Hard to penetrate waterproof barrier. Glands secrete oil which kill microbes.
2. Nasal hairs, sticky mucus and cilia prevent pathogens entering through the nostrils.
3. Respiratory system is lined with mucus to trap dust and pathogens. Cilia move the mucus upwards to be swallowed.
4. Stomach acid (pH1) kills most ingested pathogens
5. Phagocytosis, make antibodies and antitoxins
6. If the body becomes re-infected with the same pathogen then the white blood cells are prepared. The white blood cells can respond much more quickly and make more of the right type of antibodies much more quickly. This means that the person is unlikely to suffer the symptoms of the harmful disease. Infection has been prevented by enhancing the immune system.
7. Even the people who are not vaccinated are unlikely to catch the disease because there are fewer people able to pass it on.
8. A vaccine contains a small amount of dead or inactive form of the pathogen that can be introduced into the body.
10. A drug that helps to cure a bacterial disease by killing the infective bacteria inside the body
12. Bacteria can mutate. Sometimes this makes them resistant to antibiotic drugs. The mutated bacteria are not killed. Increasing numbers of different bacteria are becoming resistant and this is of concern.
14. Painkillers, steroids or anti-inflammatory medicines can be used to relieve the symptoms of viral infections. Symptoms may include fever, muscle ache, headache or a runny nose.
15. It is difficult to develop drugs to kill viruses without harming body tissues because viruses live and reproduce inside cells.
INFECTION AND RESPONSE 4
1. What is the digitalis drug used to treat?
2. Which plant does the drug digitalis originate from?
3. What is the aspirin drug used to treat?
4. Which plant does the drug aspirin originate from?
5. What is the Penicillin drug used to treat?
6. Which plant does the drug Penicillin originate from?
7. Who discovered Penicillin?
8. Which industry is responsible for synthesising new drugs?
9. What may be a starting point for a new drug being synthesised?
10.Give two reasons why new medicinal drugs have to be trialled and tested before being used.
11.Give three things which drugs are tested for.
12.Describe what happens during preclinical testing.
13.Name two groups of individuals who are involved in clinical trials.
14.Describe what happens during clinical testing.
15.What must be completed before the results of testing and trials are published?
16.What is meant by the term ‘peer review’?
17.Why is peer review important when scientific research is published?
3. Painkiller and anti-inflammatory
4. Willow bark
6. Penicillium mould
7. Alexander Fleming
8. Pharmaceutical industry
9. A chemical sourced from a plant
10. To make sure they are safe and effective
11. Efficacy, toxicity, dose
12. Tests on cells, tissues and live animals
13. Healthy volunteers, patients
14. Healthy volunteers try small doses of the drug to check it is safe and has no side effects. A small number of patients try the drug at a low dose to see if it works. A larger number of patients take the new drug and different doses are trialled to find the optimum dose. A double-blind trial will occur to see how effective the new drug is. The patients are divided into groups.
15. Peer review
16. Peer review is when other scientists check that the work is valid and has been carried out rigorously
17. Peer review helps to prevent false claims
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