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Organisation Q&a

Organisation Knowledge Questions and Answers

Date : 05/09/2023

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Uploaded by : Kiran
Uploaded on : 05/09/2023
Subject : Biology


1. What name is given to the basic building blocks of all living organisms

2. Define tissue

3. Define organ

4. Order cell, organ, organism, organ system, tissue from smallest to largest

5. Give an example of a carbohydrase enzyme

6. What do carbohydrase enzymes break down?

7. What products are formed by carbohydrase enzymes?

8. What do protease enzymes break down?

9. What products are formed by protease enzymes?

10.What do lipase enzymes break down?

11.What products are formed by lipase enzymes?

12.What are the products of digestion used to build?

13.Give one use of glucose in an animal.

14.Where is bile made?

15.Where is bile stored?

16.Why is bile alkaline?

17.How does bile emulsify fats?


1. Cells.

2. A group of similar cells with a similar structure and function.

3. A group of tissues working together to perform a specific function.

4. Cell à Tissue à Organ à Organ system à Organism

5. Amylase

6. Carbohydrates

7. Simple sugars, e.g. glucose

8. Protein

9. Amino acids

10. Lipids

11. Fatty acids and glycerol

12. New carbohydrates, proteins and lipids

13. Respiration

14. Liver

15. Gall bladder

16. Neutralise stomach acid

17. Increases the surface area of the lipid


1. Label a diagram of the heart with right ventricle, left ventricle, valves, right atrium, left atrium, pulmonary artery, pulmonary vein, aorta, vena cava.

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2. Label a diagram of the lungs with trachea, bronchi, alveoli, capillary network

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3. Describe the function of the heart

4. Describe the function of the lungs

5. Describe how the lungs are adapted for gas exchange

6. Why is the heart described as a double circulatory system?

7. Where does the right ventricle pump blood to?

8. Where does the left ventricle pump blood to?

9. Name the four key blood vessels associated with the heart

10.Describe the function of the pacemaker

11.Where is the pacemaker located?

12.What is an artificial pacemaker?

13.What is the function of an artificial pacemaker?

14.Name the three different types of blood vessel.

15.Explain how the structure of the artery is related to its function.

16.Explain how the structure of the vein is related to its function.

17.Explain how the structure of the capillary is related to its function.

18.Is blood a cell, tissue or organ?

19.Name the four components which make up blood.

20. Sketch diagrams of plasma, red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets

21.Describe the function of plasma.

22.Describe the function of red blood cells.

23.Describe the adaptations of red blood cells.

24.Describe the function of white blood cells.

25.Describe the adaptations of white blood cells.

26.Describe the function of platelets

27.Describe the adaptations of platelets




3. The heart is an organ that pumps blood around the body in a double circulatory system

4. In the lungs, oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged in the tiny air sacs (alveoli) at the end of the bronchial tubes. The alveoli are surrounded by capillaries.

5. Lungs contain millions of tiny air sacs called alveoli. Alveoli increase the surface area. Alveoli have a very good blood supply. This maintains the concentration gradient. Membranes of the alveoli are very thin to allow for a short diffusion distance.

6. The right ventricle pumps blood to the lungs where gas exchange takes place. The left ventricle pumps blood around the rest of the body.

7. The right ventricle pumps blood to the lungs where gas exchange takes place.

8. The left ventricle pumps blood around the rest of the body.

9. Pulmonary artery, pulmonary vein, aorta, vena cava

10. The natural resting heart rate is controlled by a group of cells (pacemaker).

11. Right atrium

12. Artificial electrical pacemakers is a man-made device which passes electrical impulses to simulate a pacemaker

13. Artificial electrical pacemakers are used to correct irregularities in the heart rate.

14. Artery, vein, capillary

15. The heart pumps the blood out at high pressure so the artery walls are strong and elastic. The walls are thick compared to the size of the hole down the middle (the “lumen”). They contain thick layers of muscle to make them strong, and elastic fibres to allow them to stretch and spring back.

16. Capillaries eventually join up to form veins. The blood is at lower pressure in the veins so the walls don’t need to be as thick as artery walls. They have a bigger lumen than arteries to help the blood flow despite the lower pressure. They also have valves to help keep the blood flowing in the right direction.

17. Arteries branch into capillaries. Capillaries are really tiny – to small to see. They carry the blood really close to every cell in the body to exchange substances with them. They have permeable walls, so substances can diffuse in and out. They supply food and oxygen, and take away wastes like CO2. Their walls are usually only one cell thick. This increases the rate of diffusion by decreasing the distance over which it occurs.

18. Tissue

19. White blood cells, red blood cells, platelets, plasma


Understanding Blood and Blood Components

21. Plasma is the liquid that carries everything in blood including red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets, glucose, amino acids, carbon dioxide, urea, hormones, proteins, antibodies, antitoxins

22. Red blood cells carry oxygen from the lungs to all cells in the body

23. Their shape is a biconcave disc (like a doughnut) – this gives a large surface area for absorbing oxygen. They don’t have a nucleus – this allows more room to carry oxygen. They contain a red pigment called haemoglobin. In the lungs, haemoglobin bins to oxygen to become oxyhaemoglobin. In body tissues, the reverse happens – oxyhaemoglobin splits up into haemoglobin and oxygen , to release oxygen to the cells.

24. White blood cells defend against infection.

25. They produce antibodies, antitoxins and carry out phagocytosis.

26. Platelets are small fragments of cells that help blood clot

27. They have no nucleus. Lack of platelets can cause excessive bleeding and bruising.


1. Describe the cause of coronary heart disease

2. Describe the function of a stent

3. Describe the function of statins

4. Describe how heart valves may become faulty

5. Give two ways faulty heart valves can be replaced

6. How can heart failure be treated?

7. Describe two benefits of using an artificial heart

8. What is meant by the term health?

9. Diseases are major causes of ill health. Are diseases communicable, non-communicable or both?

10.Describe, in detail, three categories of risk factors other than diseases which may affect health.

11.Link immune system to infectious disease

12.Link viruses and cancers

13.Link immune reactions to skin rashes and asthma

14.Link severe physical ill health to depression and other mental illness

15.What is meant by a causal mechanism?

16.State three risk factors which are linked to cardiovascular disease

17.State a risk factor for Type 2 diabetes

18.State a risk factor for liver and brain function

19.State a risk factor for lung disease

20. State a risk factor for lung cancer

21.State two risk factors to unborn babies

22.State a risk factor for cancer

23.Are many diseases caused by one risk factor or an interaction of a number of factors?

24.What is cancer?

25.What is meant by a ‘benign tumour’?

26.What is meant by a ‘malignant tumour’?


1. Atherosclerosis is a cause of coronary heart disease (CHD) where layers of fatty material build up inside the coronary arteries, narrowing them. This reduces the flow of blood through the coronary arteries, resulting in a lack of oxygen for the heart muscle.

2. Stents are metal cylinder grids which can be inserted into an artery to maintain blood flow by keeping the artery open so that the heart continues to receive enough oxygen to function effectively.

3. Statins are drugs that lower harmful cholesterol in the blood and stop the liver producing too much cholesterol and reduce the rate at which it is deposited.

4. In some people heart valves may become faulty, preventing the valve from opening fully or the heart valve might develop a leak because it does not close fully.

5. Faulty heart valves can be replaced by biological or mechanical valves.

6. Patients with heart failure can be given heart or heart and lung transplants.

7. Artificial hearts are occasionally used to keep patients alive whilst waiting for a heart transplant, or to allow the heart to rest as an aid to recovery. Artificial hearts can only be used as a short term measure.

8. Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being

9. Diseases can be communicable or non-communicable


1. aspects of a persons lifestyle - e.g. lack of exercise, stress levels, exposure to too much sunlight, exposure to ionising radiation (e.g. X-rays, gamma rays), life situations

2. substances (chemicals) taken into a persons body – e.g. high fat/sugar diet, cigarette smoke, alcohol

3. Substances (chemicals) in their environment - e.g. air/water pollution, asbestos, ionising radiation

11. Defects in the immune system mean that an individual is more likely to suffer from infectious diseases

12. Viruses living in cells can be the trigger for cancers to form

13. Immune reactions initially caused by a pathogen can trigger allergies such as skin rashes and asthma

14. Severe physical ill health can lead to depression and other mental illness

15. When a risk factor causes an outcome such as a disease


1. Smoking and High Blood pressure: damages the lining of the artery, leading to a build up of fatty deposits.

2. High cholesterol: Cholesterol is a fatty substance that is carried in your blood by proteins.

3. Not enough exercise: Increases blood pressure and cholesterol in the blood.

17. Obesity

18. Alcohol

19. Smoking

20. Smoking

21. Smoking and alcohol

22. Carcinogens

23. Interaction of a number of factors

24. Abnormal growth of cells, also known as a malignant tumour

25. Benign tumours are growths of abnormal cells which are contained in one area. They are usually within a membrane surrounding the cells and do not invade other parts of the body.

26. Malignant tumours are growths of abnormal cells. These are cancerous. They invade neighbouring tissues and spread to different parts of the body in the blood where they form secondary tumours. They can be caused by lifestyle or genes.


1. Explain how the structure of plant epidermal tissues are related to their function

2. Explain how the structure of plant palisade mesophyll are related to their function

3. Explain how the structure of plant spongy mesophyll are related to their function

4. Explain how the structure of plant xylem and phloem tissue are related to their function

5. Explain how the structure of plant meristem tissue are related to their function

6. Where is meristem tissue found?

7. Is the leaf a cell, tissue, organ, organ system or organism?

8. Describe the role of guard cells in leaves.

9. Describe the role of stomata in leaves.

10.Explain how the structure of root hair cells is adapted to their function.

11.Explain how the structure of xylem cells are adapted to their function.

12.Explain how the structure of phloem tissues are adapted to their function.

13.Name four factors which affect the rate of transpiration in plants.

14.Explain the effect of changing temperature on the rate of transpiration.

15.Explain the effect of changing humidity on the rate of transpiration.

16.Explain the effect of changing air movement on the rate of transpiration.

17.Explain the effect of changing light intensity on the rate of transpiration.

18.What name is collectively given to the roots, stem and leaves which transport substances around the plant?

19.Describe the process of transpiration

20.Describe the process of translocation


1. The epidermal tissues are covered with a waxy cuticle, which helps to reduce water loss by evaporation. The upper epidermis is transparent so that light can pass through it to the palisade layer. The lower epidermis is full of little holes called stomata, which let CO2 diffuse directly into the leaf.

2. The palisade layer has lots of chloroplasts. This means that they are near the top of the leaf where it is the lightest for photosynthesis.

3. Photosynthesis also occurs in the cells here. The large air spaces in the spongy mesophyll tissue increase the rate of diffusion of gases.

4. The xylem and phloem form a network of vascular bundles, which deliver water and other nutrients to the entire leaf and take away the glucose produced by photosynthesis. They also help support the structure.

5. It is where cell differentiation occurs.

6. The meristem is found at the tips of roots and shoots.

7. The leaf is an organ

8. Guard cells open and close depending on the water content of the cells. The stoma (stomata) open and close to let gases diffuse in and out and control water loss. If there is a lack of water in the guard cells they go ‘flaccid’ and close, this prevents water vapour from leaving through the stomata

9. The stoma (stomata) are tiny pores which open and close to let gases diffuse in and out and control water loss.

10. Hair like projections to increase the surface area for uptake of water and mineral ions

11. The xylem form hollow xylem tubes made of dead tissue. They have long cells with walls toughened by lignin. These adaptations help them to carry water and mineral ions in plants.

12. The phloem form phloem tubes made of living tissue. Cells have end plates with holes in them. These adaptations help them to carry glucose around the plant.

13. Temperature, humidity, air movement, light intensity

14. The warmer it is, the faster transpiration happens. When it’s warmer the water particles have more energy to evaporate and diffuse out of the stomata.

15. The drier the air around a leaf, the faster transpiration happens. This is like what happens with air flow. If the air is humid there is a lot of water already, so there is not much of a difference between the inside and the outside of the leaf. Diffusion happens fastest if there is a high concentration in one place, and a low concentration in the other.

16. The better the air flow around a leaf (e.g. stronger wind), the greater the transpiration rate. If air flow around a leaf is poor, the water vapour just surrounds the leaf and does not move away. This means there is a high concentration of water particles outside the leaf as well as inside it, so diffusion does not happen as quickly. If there’s good air flow, the water vapour is swept away, maintaining a low concentration of water in the air outside the leaf. Diffusion then happens quickly, from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration.

17. The brighter the light, the greater the transpiration rate. Stomata begin to close as it gets darker. Photosynthesis cannot happen in the dark, so they do not need to be open to let CO2 in. When the stomata are closed, very little water can escape.

18. Plant organ system

19. Transpiration is the transportation of water in a plant.

20. Translocation is the transportation of dissolved sugars from the leaves to the rest of the plant for immediate use or storage.

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