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Urbanisation In Ledcs - Mumbai

A case study about the process of urbanisation in Mumbai - India

Date : 04/11/2013

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Uploaded by : Samridh
Uploaded on : 04/11/2013
Subject : Geography

Urbanization is the process by which an increasing percentage of a country's population comes to live in town and cities. This process has become more evident in the developing world as due to development in technology and increasing wealth the urban areas in LEDCs are expanding rapidly. Much of the recent urbanization in LEDCs has occurred because of rural-urban migration, which leads to formation of shanty settlements and urban regeneration. All of these are evident in the urbanisation of the city of Mumbai.

Mumbai is considered as a mega city as it has nearly 20 million residents. Most of this population comprises of migrants from across India. Primarily from the northern state of Bihar. About 75% of the migrants come from rural areas. India being an LEDC, there are very few urban areas and due to the poor agricultural conditions in rural India most of the migrants in Mumbai immigrate to gain better economic benefits. Mumbai is also the financial capital of India and this makes it an even more attractive place for the rural migrants. This rural urban migration has lead to an increase in the population of unskilled labour and hence resulting in an influx of jobs in the informal sector. Immigration has lead to urban sprawl, as immigrants usually cannot afford the high cost houses within or close to Mumbai and hence reside on the outskirts of Mumbai. Due to expansion in the population of the people living on the fringe, urbanisation has occurred, a good example for this is Navi Mumbai. Because of the rapid urbanisation and development of Navi Mumbai the new Mumbai airport is being constructed in this area. The rise in population because of migration has lead to an extension of the city boundaries and urbanisation of near by areas surrounding Mumbai example -Thane.

Due to such large migration there is shortage of residence areas in Mumbai. Because of the economic growth the cost of residence is expensive as well. As most of the migrants as unskilled they get employed in low waged jobs and due to this they are unable to afford housing in Mumbai. This issue raises one of the main problems faced by urban areas in LEDCs - slums. Mumbai is the home of the 2nd largest slum in Asia. It is estimated that 35-40% of Mumbai`s population lives in shanty settlements. These squatter settlements lead to poverty and poor quality of life for slum dwellers. It also leads to congestion and depreciation of the infrastructure of the city. With such large slum areas it becomes difficult for the authorities to maintain the quality of infrastructure. There is also a rise in pollution with an example of the Mithi River. But with all these draw backs these slums also generate a lot of economic activities. The estimated income generated by dharavi each year is 50 corers.

Urban regeneration has become a popular practice in the cities of MEDCs. But it also took place in the lower parel area of Mumbai. In 1900s Mumbai was the main port for the cotton industry in India. There were several cotton mills located in lower parel. But as Mumbai progressed and the employment structure changed from primary/secondary to tertiary these cotton industries were abandoned and the lower parel area became barren and lifeless. But in 2000 the government sold the land of these mills to residential builders and these mills were demolished to make way for modern expensive residences. The cost of land rose from minimal to around Rs. 20/25000 per square foot. Mumbai`s tallest sky- scarper is set to be built in this area furthermore appreciating the property value. The decision of selling the mill land at a cheaper rate by the government shows its inclination for gentrification to occur. This process has caused a rise in the quality of life in the lower parel area and caused the area to become more urban.

Urbanization in Mumbai has lead to an increase in the economic activity and standard of living of the residents. Although there have been some harmful drawback to the environment such as the pollution of the Mithi River. The reducing in mangroves because of high demand of land for residence. Urbanizing is required for a better quality of life but it needs to accompany environmental sustainability as well.

This resource was uploaded by: Samridh

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