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Behaviorist Approach

a level

Date : 18/06/2022

Author Information

Farooq

Uploaded by : Farooq
Uploaded on : 18/06/2022
Subject : Psychology

OUTLINE AND EVALUATE THE BEHAVIOURIST APPROACH IN PSYCHOLOGY

AO1

ASSUMPTIONS (not needed in 16 marker)

· & & & & & & ONLY interested in studying behaviour that can be OBSERVED AND MEASURED

· & & & & & & Rejected INTROSPECTION as it involved concepts that were VAGUE and DIFFICULT TO MEASURE

· & & & & & & Relies on LAB EXPERIMENTS

· & & & & & & the basic processes that govern LEARNING are the SAME in ALL SPECIES

CLASSICAL CONDITIONING – PAVLOV

· & & & & & & LEARNING through ASSOCIATION

· & & & & & & DOGS learned to associate the sound of the BELL with the FOOD and would produce SALIVATION response every time they heard the SOUND

· & & & & & & PAVLOV was able to show how a NETURAL STIMULUS can associated itself with a new conditioned response

· & & & & & & LITTLE ALBERT study by WATSON AND RAYNER

OPERANT CONDITIONING – SKINNER

· & & & & & & POSTIVE REINFORCEMENT: receiving a REWARD when a certain BEHAVIOUR is performed

· & & & & & & NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT: when an animal/human AVOIDS something UNPLEASANT

· & & & & & & PUNISHMENT: an UNPLEASANT CONSEQUENCE of behaviour

· & & & & & & THE SKINNER BOX: every time the rat activated the lever it was rewarded with a food pellet

AO3

· & & & & & & SCIENTIFIC CREDIBILITY: ABLE to link the methods of the natural sciences to PSYCHOLOGY without the focus of measuring observing behaviour in a lab = by emphasising processes like OBJECTIVITY and REPLICATION it allowed psychology to be seen as a SCIENTIFIC DISIPLINE, giving psychology more status and credibility

· & & & & & & REAL-LIFE APPLICATION: the ideas of conditioning can be applied to real-world behaviours such as OPERANT CONDITIONING being the basis of TOKEN-ECOMOMY in prisons, schools and psychiatric wards – rewarding APPROPRIATE BEHAVIOURS with TOKENS that can be exchanged for PRIVLEGES

· & & & & & & MECHANISTIC VIEW OF BEHAVIOUR: ANIMALS in this approach are seen as PASSIVE AND MACHINE-LIKE responders WITH LITTLE TO NO CONSCIOUS INSIGHT to their BEHAVIOUR but other approaches such as SLT and the COGNITIVE approach EMPHASIS the importance of MENTAL EVENTS in learning – these occur between the STIMULUS AND RESPONSE showing that people have more of an active role in their learning = learning theory applies LESS to HUMANS than ANIMALS

· & & & & & & ENVIRONMENTAL DETERMINISM: SEES all behaviour as being determined by PAST EXPERIENCES and everything we do is based on our REINFORCEMENT HISTORY – this ignores ANY FREE WILL which SKINNER sees as an ILLUSION, we think we’ve made our own decision but it is all based off of our past conditioning history

· & & & & & & ETHICAL AND PRACTICAL ISSUES IN ANIMAL EXPERIMENTS: critics have questioned the ETHICS of conducting investigations such as that of SKINNER’S BOX and LITTLE ALBERT– ANIMALS and CHILDREN were exposed to STRESSFUL CONDITIONS which may have effected them in later life

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